Friday, 30 September 2011


 Performance of a computer depends mainly on:
• Storage Capacity of RAM
• Speed of the microprocessor
Speed of the Microprocessor
• A microprocessor performs the actual processing of data
• Manipulates 8, 16 or 32 bits of data at a time
• PC with 32-bit microprocessor will be faster than 16-bit and the PC with16-bit microprocessor will be faster than a 8-bit system
• The Bus transfers data between the microprocessor, memory and peripherals
Storage Capacity of RAM
• The amount of RAM required depends on the applications you run on your computer
• Reasonable performance today calls for 128 MB
• You need to increase the RAM capacity to run multiple applications at the same time or work with large files
Clock Rate
• It is the fundamental rate at which a computer performs its most basic operations
• The faster the rate, the quicker the microprocessor works
Performance Factors of Monitors 


Screen Resolution
• Key characteristic of computer monitors
• Refers to the number of pixels a screen can display within a given area
• A higher number of pixels would mean better clarity in the display
Vertical frequency of the monitor
• Is another important characteristic
• Indicates the number of images that can be put together per second
• A higher frequency means less stress for the human eye
• Bus
• Hardware component that carries data within and between the microprocessor, memory and peripherals
• Clock rate
• Fundamental rate at which a computer performs its most basic operations
• Microprocessor
• Component of the system unit that performs the actual processing of data
• Computer Storage
– Refers to the data stored in an electromagnetic form to be used by the processor
• Storage Capacity
– Is the number of characters that can be stored on a computer
Computer
Stores a variety of data and information in its memory 

Computer  Stores numbers (0-9), letters (A-Z) and symbols and other characters (#, {}, ‘, ~, ^) 
It uses the binary system to represent these characters
The 0s and 1s in the binary system are known as bits (binary digits)
A bit is the smallest unit of measurement of storage capacity
A set of eight bits is called a byte
Kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes and terabytes are higher units for measuring the storage capacity of a computer 

8 bits = 1 byte
1024 bytes = 1 kilobyte (KB)
1024 KB = 1 megabyte (MB)
1024 MB = 1 gigabyte (GB)
1024 GB = 1 terabyte (TB)
Computers use two types of storage:
• Internal storage
• External storage
Internal Storage
It is one of the main components of the system unit
Also known as the main memory
Stores data and instructions on the computer
Stores the output data temporarily before it is sent to the output device  

It is volatile and its capacity is also limited
 The act of retrieving existing data from memory is called reading
 The process of storing data in memory is called writing
 There are two types of internal storage: • Random Access Memory (RAM)
• Read Only Memory (ROM)

External Storage
 It is a permanent storage area
 Stores data and programs that are not needed immediately by the computer
 Also known as secondary storage
 Data stored in this medium is permanent
 It is inexpensive and has a large storage capacity
 You need a storage device called a drive to write to and read from a storage medium
Some of the commonly used external storage devices are:
• Hard disk drives
• Floppy disk drives
• Compact Disk – Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) drives
• Digital Video Disk (DVD) drives
• CD and DVD writers
Hard Disk Drive:
• Is an external storage device used to store large quantities of data
• Is attached to the system unit from within
• Is packaged along with the hard disk


Hard Disk Drive:
• Is used to read data from and write data to the hard disk
• Has a storage capacity varying from 40 GB to 80 GB to a few terabytes
Floppy Disk Drive: 


• Is an external storage device used to read from and write to a floppy disk
• Is also called a floppy or diskette
• Is a portable storage medium that can store a small amount of data
• Has a storage capacity of 1.44 MB
• Is prone to damage by heat and dust
Compact Disk -Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) Drive
• Is used to read from a CD-ROM
CD-ROM:

• Is a storage medium
• Has a large storage capacity of 650 MB or 700 MB
• Is less prone to damage
• Is nowadays available as rewritable CD 


Rewritable CDs and CD Writers:
• Are storage devices that can write data to a CD
• Store a large amount of data on a CD, with a minimum range starting at 650 MB
• Can read CD-ROMs
Digital Video Disk (DVD) Drive:
• Is an external storage device
• Used to read from a DVD-ROM
DVD-ROM:

• Is similar to a CD-ROM


• Can store a minimum of 4.7 GB
• Can store up to 17 GB
Used to store multimedia objects that combine high quality sound and graphics
Remember this

• Bit
– Smallest unit of measurement of storage capacity
• Byte
– Set of eight bits
• CD-ROM
– Compact disk that cannot be overwritten
• CD-ROM drive
– External storage device used to read from CD-ROM
• CD writer
 

Storage device that can write data to rewritable CD
• Drive
– Storage device used to write to and read from storage medium
• DVD drive
– External storage device used to read from DVD-ROM
• External Storage

– Permanent storage area required to store data and programs that are not needed immediately by the computer
• Floppy disk
– Portable storage medium that can store a small amount of data
• Floppy disk drive
– External storage device used to read from and write to a floppy disk
• Hard disk drive


– External storage device attached to the system unit from within. A hard disk drive can be found in almost any PC.
• Primary storage
– Internal storage, or main memory of a computer. It contains data and instructions for processing. It also holds the output data temporarily before it is sent to an appropriate output device.
• RAM, Random Access Memory

– Storage area used for temporarily holding programs and data for processing.
• ROM, Read Only Memory
– Storage area used for holding instructions needed for starting a computer. These instructions cannot be erased or modified.
• Writing
– Process of storing data in memory. This process is also referred to as reading in.

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In a computer:
• Keyboard and the mouse are input devices
• Monitor and the printer are output devices
• The system unit is responsible for all the processing required to convert the input to the desired output
• The system unit can perform all kinds of arithmetic and logical operations
Motherboard 
 It is a part of the system unit and houses several vital components of the computer 
• Microprocessor
– It is the most important component of the motherboard that performs the actual processing of data, that is, the arithmetic or logical operations on the given data
• A large board in the system unit
• Has a number of tiny electronic circuits and other components
• The microprocessor is the most important component of the motherboard
Video Card 
Plugs into a personal computer to give it display capabilities.
• Plugs into a personal computer to give it display capabilities
• It enables the representation of data in a visual form
• It provides digital-to-analog conversion 
Sound Card 
A device in the system unit that enables a computer to accept, process and play sound
• It is a device in the system unit
• It enables a computer to accept, process and play sound
• It enables a computer to record sound from a microphone
• It manipulates sound stored on a disk and the sound is given as output through speakers
 Remember This

• In the late 1980s, a computer cost almost 1 lakh rupees
• Today, a world class branded computer can be purchased for about Rs. 15,000/-
• Previously, only the higher secondary schools were able to afford computer laboratories
• Today, computer education is introduced at the primary level in many institutions

Output Devices


• Device that is capable of representing information from a computer is called an output device
There are three important output devices connected to the system unit:

• Monitor
• Printer
          Dot matrix, Inkjet, Laser
• Speakers

Monitor


• Resembles a television screen
• Also called the Visual Display Unit (VDU)
• Used to display information from the computer
• Displays text and graphics
• Has a power button to turn it on or off
Printer


• Used to transfer data from a computer onto paper
• Colour printers as well as grey scale printers available in the market
• Different types of printers are dot matrix printers, inkjet printers and laser printers
Speakers


• Used to play sound like Music

Wednesday, 28 September 2011

• Some of the important computer input devices are:  
• Mouse 
• Keyboard 
• Scanner 
• Microphone 
• Web camera 
Mouse  
• Used to point to and select options displayed on the monitor 
• Connected to the system unit by means of a long wire 
• May have two or three buttons 
• Left button is the most frequently used button 
• Scroll mouse comes with a wheel between the left and right buttons  
• Optical mouse is a pointing device that detects movement by sensing changes in reflected light 
• When you move the mouse on a flat surface, you will see an arrow moving on the screen 
• This arrow is known as the mouse pointer 
• A mouse pad is a small mat with a plastic surface and a rubber or plastic-base cushion on which you can move a mouse
Keyboard  

• Used for typing text into the computer 
• Also known as the standard input device 
• Most commonly available computer keyboard has 104 keys  
There are different types of keys on the keyboard: 
• Alphanumeric keys 
– They include letters and numbers 
• Punctuation keys 
– They are the colon (:), the semicolon (;), the question mark (?), single quotes (‘) and double quotes (“) 
• Special keys 
– They are Arrow keys, Control keys and Function keys (F1 to F12) 
• Function keys 
– They are special keys that are used to perform specific functions 
– They are labelled as F1, F2, F3 and so on till F12 
– The F1 key in most software is to provide help on the software 
The insertion point is the blinking line that indicates the position on the screen where the text will appear as it is being typed 
Scanner
• Used to make an exact copy of a picture or a photograph 

Microphone
• Is a device used to record sound
• Converts sound waves into audio signals
Web Camera

• A device that captures images and records in the computer










The Personal Computer: Different types of Computer  
Referred to as a PC
•Designed to be used by one individual at a time.
•Used for applications, such as accounting, statistical analysis and graphic design.
•Not suited for complex applications
– that require large storage capacities.
– involve complex mathematical calculations.  

Desktops and Towers 

Desktops - Can be placed on top of desks or tables.
•Towers - The system unit can be placed under the desk.
•All stationary computers are referred to as desktops. 
Laptops and Notebooks  
•Small portable computers
•Modern laptops are often called notebook computers
•Can operate on batteries
•IBM, Apple, Compaq, Dell, Toshiba and Hewlett-Packard are well known manufacturers
Handheld Computers 

•Small portable computers designed to fit in your pocket
•Designed to facilitate everyday functions,
– using a calendar
– maintaining an address book
•Used to maintain notes, task lists and details of appointments 


Tablet PCs 

•A type of notebook computer.
•Has a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen.
•Allows the user to take notes on the screen by using a special pen.
•User’s handwritten content can be edited and shared by using e-mail. 




Handheld Computers
•Small portable computers designed to fit in your pocket
•Designed to facilitate everyday functions,
– using a calendar
– maintaining an address book
•Used to maintain notes, task lists and details of appointments

 
Remember This

•Desktop computers

–Computers that are usually placed on top of desks or tables.
•Handheld computers
–Small portable computers designed to fit in your pocket. They are typically not as powerful as desktops or notebooks.
•Laptop computers
–Small portable computers. 

•Liquid Crystal Displays
–Type of display used for laptop and notebook computers and also in digital watches.
•Personal computer
–Computer designed to be used by one individual at a time.
•Tablet PC
–Type of notebook computer that allows the user to take notes on the screen using a special pen.

Benefits and Limitations of Computers 
Benefits of Computers
•High Speed
–Ability to perform tasks at a greater speed than human beings.
–Perform complex calculations in seconds.
•Accuracy
–Perform tasks with accuracy.
–Input given to the computer determines the output received. 

•Storage
–Can store large amounts of information.
–Retrieve information whenever required.
•Automation
–Can be instructed to perform tasks automatically.
•Diligence
–Can perform the same task repeatedly, without getting tired.
–Can do the same job with the same accuracy for hours or longer.  

•Versatility
–Can be used to perform simple as well as complex tasks.
•Cost effective
–Reduce the amount of paperwork and human effort, thereby reducing costs.


Limitations of Computers
•Computers cannot work independently.
•They need clear and complete instructions to perform a task accurately.
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Application of Computers in Education 
•Computers have brought about radical changes in the field of education.
•Computers are used extensively in:
–Digital Media in Education
–Digital Communication in Education
–Online Tests and Publishing of Test Results

_Data Traking
Digital Media in Education  
•Digital lessons help students to understand and retain concepts.
•Computer-based self-paced learning is used as a teaching aid to supplement classroom learning. •A program is a set of instructions that enables a computer to perform a given task

•A software is a set of related programs 


Computer-based tutorials 
•Provide immediate feedback to the students.
 •Provide flexible learning pace.
•Have audio and graphics that help to understand the concepts easily.
•Enhance retention.
•Help to learn complex topics easily.


Digital Communication in Education

_Digital Communication in Education involves
–Internet as a tool for distance education programs.
–E-mail for course related communication.
–Newsgroups for discussion.
–Multimedia for school activities.  

Online Tests and Publishing of Test Results
•Students can take online tests by using computers and get instant results.

•Many examination boards publish their results over the Internet.
•Several universities post their examination forms on their Web sites

Data Tracking
•Teachers can maintain and revise the individual records of their students without redoing them manually.

•Schools can maintain data on student admission status, fee payments, transfer certificates and so on. 


Remember This

•HTML

–Main language used to create Web pages.
•Internet
–Interconnection of thousands of computers across the globe.
•Multimedia Program
–Program that uses a combination of text, graphics, sound and video.
•Newsgroup
–Online discussion forum where the user can post and view messages.

•Program

–Set of instructions that enables a computer to perform a given task.
•Uniform Resource Locator, or URL
–Global address of documents and other resources on the Web.
•Web Site
–Location on the World Wide Web.

  GENERAL KEYBOARD SHORTCUT
 CTRL+C (Copy) 
* CTRL+X (Cut) 
* CTRL+V (Paste) 
* CTRL+Z (Undo) 
* DELETE (Delete)
* SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin) 
* CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item) 
* CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item) 
* F2 key (Rename the selected item)  
* CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word) 
* CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word)
* CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph)
 
* CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph) 
* CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text)
*SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document)
 
* CTRL+A (Select all) 
* F3 key (Search for a file or a folder) 
* ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item)
* ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program)
 
* ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object) 
* ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window) 
* CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents open simultaneously)  
* ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items) 
* ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened) 
* F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop)  
* F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer) 
* SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item)
* ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window)
 
* CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu) 
* ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu)
* LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu)
 
* F5 key (Update the active window) 
* BACKSPACE (View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
* ESC (Cancel the current task)
 
* SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-ROM from automatically playing) 
* CTRL+SHIFT+ESC (Open Task Manager) 
Accessibility keyboard shortcuts 
* Right SHIFT for eight seconds (Switch FilterKeys either on or off)  
* Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN (Switch High Contrast either on or off) 
* Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK (Switch the MouseKeys either on or off)
* SHIFT five times (Switch the StickyKeys either on or off)
 
* NUM LOCK for five seconds (Switch the ToggleKeys either on or off) 
* Windows Logo +U (Open Utility Manager) 
Dialog box keyboard shortcuts
If you press SHIFT+F8 in extended selection list boxes, you enable extended selection mode. In this mode, you can use an arrow key to move a cursor without changing the selection. You can press CTRL+SPACEBAR or SHIFT+SPACEBAR to adjust the selection. To cancel extended selection mode, press SHIFT+F8 again. Extended selection mode cancels itself when you move the focus to another control.

* CTRL+TAB (Move forward through the tabs)
 
* CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the tabs) 
* TAB (Move forward through the options) 
* SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the options)
* ALT+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option)
* ENTER (Perform the command for the active option or button) 
* SPACEBAR (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box)
* Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons)
 
* F1 key (Display Help) 
* F4 key (Display the items in the active list) 
* BACKSPACE (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box) 
Microsoft natural keyboard shortcuts  
* Windows Logo (Display or hide the Start menu)
* Windows Logo+BREAK (Display the System Properties dialog box)
* Windows Logo+D (Display the desktop)
* Windows Logo+M (Minimize all of the windows)
 * Windows Logo+SHIFT+M (Restore the minimized windows)
* Windows Logo+E (Open My Computer)
* Windows Logo+F (Search for a file or a folder)
* CTRL+Windows Logo+F (Search for computers)
 * Windows Logo+F1 (Display Windows Help)
* Windows Logo+ L (Lock the keyboard)  
* Windows Logo+R (Open the Run dialog box)
* Windows Logo+U (Open Utility Manager) 

Windows Explorer keyboard shortcuts
* END (Display the bottom of the active window) 
* HOME (Display the top of the active window) 
* NUM LOCK+Asterisk sign (*) (Display all of the subfolders that are under the selected folder) 
* NUM LOCK+Plus sign (+) (Display the contents of the selected folder)
* NUM LOCK+Minus sign (-) (Collapse the selected folder) 
* LEFT ARROW (Collapse the current selection if it is expanded, or select the parent folder)
* RIGHT ARROW (Display the current selection if it is collapsed, or select the first subfolder)

Tuesday, 27 September 2011

Some Basic Concept on Computer Science & Technology

What is Computer?
Computer is an electronic device, which can perform arithmetical as well as logical operations.
 
What is Bit ?
A Bit is the smallest unit of Storage Capacity.

 
What is Byte ?
A set of eight Bit is Called Byte.

 
What is Bus ?
The Bus is a Hardware component that Carries data within and between the Microprocessor, RAM and Peripherals.

 
What is Drive ?
A Drive is a storage device used to write to and read from a Storage Medium.

 
What is Microprocessor ?
A Microprocessor is the component of the system unit that performs the actual processing of data

 
What is a program ?
A set of instructions called Program.

 
What is Software ?
Software refers to a set of interlinked programs , which directs a computer to perform specific tasks.

 
How many types of Software?
There are two types of Software

1. Application Software
2. System Software
 
What is Application Software ?
Software employed by users to accomplish specific Tasks is called Application Software.

 

What is System software ?
Software that provides basic functions of the computer is called system software.

 
What can you do with Menu bar?
With the menu bar , one can display and chose various tasks associated with a window or program.

 
What is menu Item?
Menu Items areCommands within the menu bar that allow chosing of functions and tasks.

 
What is Notification Area?
The Notification Area is on the bottom right side of the desktop and holds system Icons that allow for function such as changing the time and volume of the computer.

 
What is password ?
Protection from unwanted or unauthorised use of your computer can be accomplished with a password. It prevents access by those who do not know the password.

 
What is Quick launch bar ?
The Quick launch bar displays commonly used applications it located on the taskbar.

 
What is Active window and inactive window?
The Active window is the window with which you are currently working. All the windows except for the active window are called inactive windows.

 
What can you do with calculator program ?
The calculator program in windows xp can perform basic calculations as well as scientific and statistical calculations


what can you do with Date and time properties ?
Date and time properties allows for changing of time zones, dates and time of day.

 
What is folders?
Folders contain files or other folders and are represented by a yellow folder in windows XP.

 
What is Help and Support ?
Help and support is feature of windows XP that provides answers to technical problems.

 
What can you do with My Computer?
From My Computer, you can easily access your files and the control panel and you can also change settings.

Sunday, 25 September 2011

African Countries Information Technological news & Related Gossips:Software and hardware systems company Oracle has said its Communications Digital Store would help service providers meet growing demand for digital content. The company made the introduction on Thursday.

“With the addition of Oracle Communications Digital Store, Oracle is well positioned to support operators’ digital store initiatives,” said Liam Maxwell, vice president products, Oracle Communications.
“The explosion in demand for applications has created urgency among service providers to develop user-friendly and efficient digital stores. CSPs using the Oracle Communications Digital Store can help streamline the entire process – from content submission through customer purchase – to provide customers an optimal user experience and grow their revenue streams.”
Oracle Communications Digital Store is an end-to-end digital content platform that helps CSPs manages the complete content lifecycle, spanning content submission, test and approval and storefront management.
It also provides consumers a compelling experience for discovering and purchasing a wide range of digital content for a variety of mobile devices.
CSPs deploying the Oracle Communications Digital Store can help maximize revenue through premium content downloads and increase the number of subscribers using data services, mitigate customer churn by enhancing the consumer digital store experience and support the simple acquisition of digital content on both smart and feature phones, and manage and deploy digital content on multiple devices via easy to use digital stores, among other things.

Saturday, 24 September 2011


[To be published in the Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part II, Section 3, Sub-section (i)]
Government of India
Ministry of Information Technology

New Delhi, the 17th October, 2000
NOTIFICATION
G.S.R 788 (E) In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (3) of section 1 of the Information Technology Act, 2000 (21 of 2000), the Central Government hereby appoints 17th Day of October 2000 as the date on which the provisions of the said Act comes into force.
[ No. 1(20)/97-IID(NII)/F6]
(P.M.Singh)
Joint Secretary
To,
The Manager
Govt. of India Press
Mayapuri
New Delhi
[To be published in the Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part II, Section 3, Sub-section (i)]
Government of India
Ministry of Information Technology
New Delhi, the 17th October, 2000
NOTIFICATION
G.S.R 789 (E) In exercise of the powers conferred by section 87 of the Information Technology Act, 2000 (21 of 2000), the Central Government hereby makes the following rules regulating the application and other guidelines for Certifying Authorities, namely:-
1. Short title and commencement.- (1) These Rules may be called Information Technology (Certifying Authorities) Rules, 2000.
(2) They shall come into force on the date of their publication in the Official Gazette.
2.Definitions.- In these Rules, unless the context otherwise requires,–
(a) “Act” means the Information Technology Act, 2000 (21 of 2000);
(b) “applicant” means Certifying Authority applicant;
(c) “auditor” means any internationally accredited computer security professional or agency appointed by the Certifying Authority and recognized by the Controller for conducting technical audit of operation of Certifying Authority;
(d) “Controller” means Controller of Certifying Authorities appointed under sub-section (1) of Section 17 of the Act;
(e) “Digital Signature Certificate” means Digital Signature Certificate issued under sub-section (4) of section 35 of the Act;
(f) “information asset” means all information resources utilized in the course of any organisation’s business and includes all information, applications (software developed or purchased), and technology (hardware, system software and networks);
(g) “licence” means a licence granted to Certifying Authorities for the issue of Digital Signature Certificates under these rules;
(h) “licensed Certifying Authority” means Certifying Authority who has been granted a licence to issue Digital Signature Certificates;
(i) “person” shall include an individual; or a company or association or body of individuals; whether incorporated or not; or Central Government or a State Government or any of the Ministries or Departments, Agencies or Authorities of such Governments;
(j) “Schedule” means a schedule annexed to these rules;
(k) “subscriber identity verification method” means the method used to verify and authenticate the identity of a subscriber;
(l) “trusted person” means any person who has: –
(i) direct responsibilities for the day-to-day operations, security and performance of those business activities that are regulated under the Act or these Rules in respect of a Certifying Authority; or
(ii) duties directly involving the issuance, renewal, suspension, revocation of Digital Signature Certificates (including the identification of any person requesting a Digital Signature Certificate from a licensed Certifying Authority), creation of private keys or administration of a Certifying Authority's computing facilities.
(m) words and expressions used herein and not defined but defined in Schedule-IV shall have the meaning respectively assigned to them in that schedule.
3. The manner in which information be authenticated by means of Digital Signature.- A Digital Signature shall,-
(a) be created and verified by cryptography that concerns itself with transforming electronic record into seemingly unintelligible forms and back again;
(b) use what is known as “Public Key Cryptography”, which employs an algorithm using two different but mathematical related “keys” – one for creating a Digital Signature or transforming data into a seemingly unintelligible form, and another key for verifying a Digital Signature or returning the electronic record to original form,
the process termed as hash function shall be used in both creating and verifying a Digital Signature.
Explanation: Computer equipment and software utilizing two such keys are often termed as “asymmetric cryptography”.
4. Creation of Digital Signature.- To sign an electronic record or any other item of information, the signer shall first apply the hash function in the signer’s software; the hash function shall compute a hash result of standard length which is unique (for all practical purposes) to the electronic record; the signer’s software transforming the hash result into a Digital Signature using signer’s private key; the resulting Digital Signature shall be unique to both electronic record and private key used to create it; and the Digital Signature shall be attached to its electronic record and stored or transmitted with its electronic record.
5. Verification of Digital Signature.- The verification of a Digital Signature shall be accomplished by computing a new hash result of the original electronic record by means of the hash function used to create a Digital Signature and by using the public key and the new hash result, the verifier shall check-
(i) if the Digital Signature was created using the corresponding private key; and
(ii) if the newly computed hash result matches the original result which was transformed into Digital Signature during the signing process. The verification software will confirm the Digital Signature as verified if:-
(a) the signer’s private key was used to digitally sign the electronic record, which is known to be the case if the signer’s public key was used to verify the signature because the signer’s public key will verify only a Digital Signature created with the signer’s private key; and
(b) the electronic record was unaltered, which is known to be the case if the hash result computed by the verifier is identical to the hash result extracted from the Digital Signature during the verification process.
6. Standards.-The Information Technology (IT) architecture for Certifying Authorities may support open standards and accepted de facto standards; the most important standards that may be considered for different activities associated with the Certifying Authority’s functions are as under:
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