Many different types of network protocols and standards are required to ensure that a computer can communicate with another computer located on the next desk or any location around the worlds.
A network protocol is a set of rules that governs the communications between computers and other devices on a network. This rules include guidelines that regulate the characteristics of a network such as access method, allowed physical topologies, types of cabling, and speed of data transfer.some protocols also support message acknowledgement and data compression designed for reliable and/or high-performance network communication. Hundreds of different computer network protocols have been developed each designed for specific purposes and environments.
The seven-layer OSI model, created by the ISO, defines inter networking environments. It provides a description of how software and hardware interact to permit communication between computers. An interface separates each layer from those above and below it.